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While you cannot use a health insurance card pursuant to domestic Japanese laws overseas, Health Insurance Society insured persons and dependents can use the "Application form for payment of medical expense [for overseas]" to request reimbursement of medical care costs for examination, treatment, or prescriptions at overseas medical care institutions for illness or injury sustained while overseas, after first paying the costs up front themselves. The amount paid will be based on the costs for which health insurance would apply in Japan.
Note: You can apply for overseas medical care expenses even when overseas for pleasure or business travel. However, you cannot do so in cases in which you traveled overseas specifically for medical care purposes.